The only gemstones made by living creatures, rare NATURAL PEARLS are produced by mollusks who layer calcium carbonate around a microscopic irritant. Most pearls used commercially today are FRESHWATER PEARLS, cultured or farmed by implanting a grafted piece of shell into freshwater pearl mussels. SHELL PEARLS, also known as simulated or replica pearls are made from mother-of-pearl. Pearl is the birthstone for June.
A gem variety of crystalline quartz, citrine ranges in color from golden yellow to orange. Closely related to amethyst, sometimes the two minerals are found growing together in the same crystal. An alternate birthstone for those born in November, some wearers believe that citrine can help improve personal clarity and eliminate self-destructive tendencies.